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2018 (v.26 no.4)

Translational and Clinical Pharmacology

Korean Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
ISSN: 2289-0882

  • Pharmacodynamic principles and target concentration intervention

    Nick Holford

    TCP | v.26, no.4, pp.150-154, Dec, 2018


    This tutorial reviews the principles of dose individualisation with an emphasis on target concentration intervention (TCI). Once a target effect is chosen then pharmacodynamics can predict the target concentration and pharmacokinetics can predict the target dose to achieve the required response. Dose individualisation can be considered at three levels: population, group and individual. Population dosing, also known as fixed dosing or “one size fits all” is often used but is poor clinical pharmacology; group dosing uses patient features such as weight, organ function and co-medication to adjust the dose for a typical patient; individual dosing uses observations of patient response to inform about pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics in the individual and use these individual differences to individualise dose.


    Target concentration, Target concentration intervention, Target dose, Target effect, Therapeutic drug monitoring