2018 (v.26 no.1)
Translational and Clinical Pharmacology
Korean Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Population pharmacokinetic analysis of metformin administered as fixed-dose combination in Korean healthy adults
TCP | v.26, no.1, pp.25-31, Mar, 2018
Metformin, an oral antihyperglycemic agent, is widely used as the first-line pharmacotherapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It has been in use for several decades as numerous different formulations. However, despite its use, population pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling of metformin is not well developed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of formulation on PK parameters by developing a population PK model of metformin in Koreans and using this model to assess bioequivalence. We used a comparative PK study of a single agent and a fixed-dose combination of metformin in 36 healthy volunteers. The population PK model of metformin was developed using NONMEM (version 7.3). Visual predictive checks and bootstrap methods were performed to determine the adequacy of the model. The plasma concentration-time profile was best described by a two-compartment, first-order elimination model with first-order absorption followed by zero-order absorption with lag time. From the covariate analysis, formulation had significant effect (p < 0.01) on relative bioavailability (F = 0.94) and first-order absorption constant (Ka = 0.83), but the difference was within the range of bioequivalence criteria. No other covariate was shown to have significant effect on PK parameters. The PK profile of the disposition phase was consistent with the published literature. However, in the present study, the multiple peaks found during the absorption phase implied the possible diversity of absorption PK profile depending on formulation or population. Unlike traditional bioequivalence analysis, the population PK model reflects formulation differences
on specific parameters and reflected simulation can be performed.
Metformin, NONMEM, Korean, Pharmacokinetics