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2017 (v.25 no.3)

Translational and Clinical Pharmacology

Korean Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
ISSN: 2289-0882

  • Prediction and visualization of CYP2D6 genotype-based phenotype using clustering algorithms

    Eun-Young Kim, Sang-Goo Shin, Jae-Gook Shin

    TCP | v.25, no.3, pp.147-152, Sep, 2017


    This study focused on the role of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) genotypes to predict phenotypes in the metabolism of dextromethorphan. CYP2D6 genotypes and metabolic ratios (MRs) of dextromethorphan were determined in 201 Koreans. Unsupervised clustering algorithms, hierarchical and k-means clustering analysis, and color visualizations of CYP2D6 activity were performed on a subset of 130 subjects. A total of 23 different genotypes were identified, five of which were observed in one subject. Phenotype classifications were based on the means, medians, and standard deviations of the log MR values for each genotype. Color visualization was used to display the mean and median of each genotype as different color intensities. Cutoff values were determined using receiver operating characteristic curves from the k-means analysis, and the data were validated in the remaining subset of 71 subjects. Using the two highest silhouette values, the selected numbers of clusters were three (the best) and four. The findings from the two clustering algorithms were similar to those of other studies, classifying *5/*5 as a lowest activity group and genotypes containing duplicated alleles (i.e., CYP2D6*1/*2N) as a highest activity group. The validation of the k-means clustering results with data from the 71 subjects revealed relatively high concordance rates: 92.8% and 73.9% in three and four clusters, respectively. Additionally, color visualization allowed for rapid interpretation of results. Although the clustering approach to predict CYP2D6 phenotype from CYP2D6 genotype is not fully complete, it provides general information about the genotype to phenotype relationship, including rare genotypes with only one subject.


    CYP2D6, clustering analysis, dextromethorphan, genotype, phenotype