The human microbiome is known to play an essential role in influencing host health. Extracellular
vesicles (EVs) have also been reported to act on a variety of signaling pathways, distally transport
cellular components such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acid, and have immunomodulatory effects.
Here we shall review the current understanding of the intersectionality of the human microbiome
and EVs in the emerging field of microbiota-derived EVs and their pharmacological potential. Microbes
secrete several classes of EVs: outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), membrane vesicles (MVs),
and apoptotic bodies. EV biogenesis is unique to each cell and regulated by sophisticated signaling
pathways. EVs are primarily composed of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and recent evidence suggests
they may also carry metabolites. These components interact with host cells and control various
cellular processes by transferring their constituents. The pharmacological potential of microbiomederived
EVs as vaccine candidates, biomarkers, and a smart drug delivery system is a promising
area of future research. Therefore, it is necessary to elucidate in detail the mechanisms of microbiome-
derived EV action in host health in a multi-disciplinary manner.